Task 31 - Daylighting Buildings in the 21st Century


Energy and Buildings - Special Issue on Daylighting Buildings
July 2006
Editor: Alan Meier and Branislav Todorovic
Energy and Buildings is an international journal publishing articles with explicit links to energy use in buildings. The aim is to present new research results, and new proven practice aimed at reducing energy needs of a building and improving indoor environment quality.

It is published with the editorial support of the International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB)

Topics covered include:
• Energy demands and consumption in existing and future buildings
• Thermal comfort and indoor air quality
• Natural and mechanical ventilation
• Air distribution in air conditioned buildings
• Application of solar and other renewable energy sources in buildings
• Energy balances in major building complexes (industrial, public and other buildings)
• HVAC and refrigeration systems in residential, public and industrial buildings
• Heat recovery systems in buildings
• Buildings and district heating
• Energy conservation in built environment
• Energy efficient buildings
• Building physics
• Sustainable buildings and energy demands
• Evaluation and control of indoor thermal and lighting systems
• Intelligent buildings
• Links between architectural design, mechanical and lighting systems
• New materials in buildings and their impact on energy demands
• External and internal design conditions for energy efficient buildings

Papers with results based on simulations are welcome but those with clear links to laboratory or field measurements are preferred. These links may include calibration, benchmarking, or comparisons of results.
Daylight Control Systems Calibration & Commissioning Guide
May 2006 - PDF 0.24MB
By: Martin Butcher
If a lighting control system is not calibrated and commissioned correctly, it is unlikely that the design intent – occupant satisfaction and significant energy savings – will be achieved. Failure to commission control systems has been noted as one of the single greatest reasons for the failure of daylighting systems to save energy. Furthermore Lighting controls in a number of applications are not properly commissioned and many operational problems are there from start-up. The range of control systems in the marketplace and diverse range of projects means that specific advice needs to be sought from the system provider when preparing a procedure for calibration and commissioning each project. It is not intended that reliance can therefore be placed on this guide alone when formulating such a procedure.
Experimental Validation of Daylighting Simulation Methods for Complex Fenestration Systems
May 2006 - PDF 0.19MB
By: Fawaz Maamari, Marilyne Andersen, Jan de Boer, William L. Carroll, Dominique Dumortier, Phillip Greenup
The objective of this paper is to assess the capability of existing lighting simulation methods to predict the performance of complex fenestration systems, which are becoming a commonly used component in buildings construction domain. A specific experimental protocol was conducted to collect reliable reference data based on illuminance measurements inside a black box with (and without) one complex glazing sample facing a measured external luminance distribution. Two types of simulation methods were tested and compared: The first is based on modeling the glazing sample in a ray-tracing simulation program and the second is based on use of the samples' BTDF data. The BTDF data sets were combined with the external luminance distribution to predict the flux distribution inside the room and the resulting illuminance values at the reference points. The comparison between the experimental reference data and the simulation results showed that the influence of the CFS could be predicted with good accuracy.
Goniophotometry and Assessment of Bidirectional Photometric Properties of Complex Fenestration Systems
March 2006 - PDF 0.69MB
By: Marilyne Anderson and Jan de Boer
This paper seeks to provide an overview of the currently available assessment tools for Bidirectional Transmission or Re°ection Distribution Functions (BTDFs, BRDFs) of complex fenestration systems (CFS). In the ¯rst part of the paper, the existing experimental devices (goniophotometers) developed speci¯cally for CFS measurement are described. All but two are based on a scanning process to investigate the emerging light flux distribution, the alternative approach being based on digital imaging techniques. A critical analysis of their advantages and shortcomings is proposed to provide both researchers interested in replicating them and more generally potential users of BTDF or BRDF data with a lucid idea of the available options.
Assessment of Daylight Quality in Simple Rooms
Impact of Three Window Configuratoins on Daylight Conditions, Phase 2
2006 - PDF 4MB
By: Kjeld Johnsen, Marie-Claude Dubois and Karl Grau
Publisher: Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut, SBi
The present report documents the results of a study on daylight conditions in simple rooms of residential buildings. The overall objective of the study was to develop a basis for a method for the assessment of daylight quality in a room with simple geometry and window configurations.
ISBN: 87-563-1270-9
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Application of the CIE Test Cases to Assess the Accuracy of Lighting Computer Programs
April 2005 - PDF 0.24MB
Editor: Fawaz Maamari
To answer to an increasing need in the lighting simulation domain, the CIE technical committee 3.33 defined recently a set of test cases to be used for assessing the accuracy of lighting computer programs. These test cases have the advantage of avoiding or reducing the uncertainties in the validation reference data by using simple analytical scenarios or by applying reliable experimental protocols. This paper presents an application example of these test cases to two existing lighting computer programs. 32 different testing scenarios were used covering different aspects of the lighting simulation domain: direct artificial lighting, direct daylighting and diffuse reflections and inter-reflections.
Daylight and Electric Lighting Control Systems Design Guide
April 2005 - PDF 0.25MB
By: Nicolas Morel
The goal of an automatic control system for daylighting and electric lighting devices is double: 1. Optimize the user’s comfort inside the room; 2. Minimize the energy used for allowing a good inside comfort. The control system must provide, even before tuning or adaptation, a good comfort to the users. This comfort is not limited to visual comfort, but also includes thermal and air quality comforts.
Modelling Indoor Illumination by Complex Fenestration Systems Based on Bidirectional Photometric Data
April 2005 - PDF 1.01MB
By: Jan de Boer
Significant efforts to assess the Bidirectional Transmittance distribution Functions (BTDFs) of complex fenestration systems (CFS) have been undertaken in recent years. This paper presents a methodology for including these bidirectional photometric raw data sets into the daylighting simulation and design process. The method is based on computing the luminous instensity distribution on internal façade elements from BTDF data (measured or calculated) and the outside luminance distribution on the façade elements. Special designed filters, which are necessary to pre-process the raw data, are derived. Since the BTDF raw data sets are big in volume, data compression techniques are introduced and applied. In order to account for dynamic – i.e. time variant systems – façade systems, like automated blinds, control models are being provided. The method is exemplarily incorporated into a complex fenestration system database and lighting simulation engines. The procedure is being validated. Limitations of the method are being discussed.
Key Findings from Online Survey on the use of Daylight Simulation Programs
March 2004 - PDF 0.29MB
By: Christoph F. Reinhart and Annegret Fitz
The research described in this paper was motivated by the authors’ observation that despite the availability of simplified and detailed daylight simulation methods, none of these tools has yet penetrated the building design market to any great degree. The objective of this study therefore was to identify weaknesses of existing daylighting design software packages, better understand design practitioners’ needs, and accordingly provide guidance to software developers
Document Number: NRCC-46897
Lightswitch 2002
A Model for Manual and Automated Control of Electric Lighting and Blinds
2004 - PDF 0.52MB
By: Christoph F. Reinhart
A simulation algorithm is proposed that predicts the lighting energy performance of manually and automatically controlled electric lighting and blind systems in private and two-person offices. Algorithm inputs are annual profiles of user occupancy and work plane illuminances. These two inputs are combined with probabilistic switching patterns, which have been derived from field data, in order to predict the status of the electric lighting and blinds throughout the year. The model features four different user types to mimic variation in control behavior between different occupants.