Task 44 - Solar + Heat Pump Systems


Dissemination activities in workshops and conferences of IEA SHC Task 44 / HPP Annex 38
A technical report of subtask D - Report D3
April 2014 - PDF 0.4MB
By: Matteo D’Antoni
This report gives a selection of important papers issued by Task 44.
Dissemination activities in workshops and conferences of IEA SHC Task 44 / HPP Annex 38
Dissemination Activities of Subtask A of the IEA SHC Task 44 / HPP Annex 38
A technical report of subtask A – Report A3
April 2014 - PDF 0.5MB
By: Sebastian Herkel and Jörn Ruschenburg
In Subtask A of the joint IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme Task 44 and Heat Pump Programme Annex 38, different concepts for solar and heat pump heating systems are evaluated based on annual system simulations.

This report gives an overview on dissemination activities in relation to Subtask A "Solutions and Generic Systems”. These dissemination activities include:

- 19 conference papers
- 5 reports
- 6 undergraduate theses
- 8 (reviewed and non-reviewed) journal papers
- 10 presentations that were not connected to a conference / conference paper
Dissemination Activities of Subtask A of the IEA SHC Task 44 / HPP Annex 38
Task 44 Highlights 2013
Solar and Heat Pump Systems
February 2014 - PDF 0.25MB
Combining solar and heat pump technologies is relevant in several aspects: a high renewable fraction can be achieved (solar + the heat pump heat source) and the safety of the solution makes it a good choice for many homeowners. The solar heat can help enhance the performance of the heat pump by raising the evaporation temperature. And the solar heat can be stored at low temperatures (0-80° C) thus making good use of the collectors even during the cold season, cloudy days or at night. A good use of the latent heat of water changed into ice around 0° C can also be achieved.
Task 44 Highlights 2013
Testing Solar and Heat Pump Systems in laboratory
A technical report of Subtask B
December 2013 - PDF 1.66MB
By: Michael Hartl, Editor, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Energy Department, Vienna, Austria Ivan Malenkovic, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH Jorge Facão, Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, LNEG, Lisbon, Portugal Ivan Katic,Danish Technological Institute, DTI, Denmark Robert Haberl, Andreas Reber, Michel Y. Haller, Institut für Solartechnik, SPF, Rapperswil, Switzerland
Within the T44A38 as many as 13 different system tests could be performed successfully. Three different test methods were conducted, a modified bin method, a test based on EN255-3 and five tests according to the concise cycle test (CCT). The test with the modified bin method and the test based on EN255-3 were conducted on the same system. The comparison of the two test methods showed a good agreement in the results, although the boundary conditions were slightly different. The test based on EN255-3 was more time consuming and depending on the weather conditions. Therefore the test seems also not to be repeatable with the same conditions. The modified bin method, which is based on a Trnsys simulation model, needs only to perform some specific experiments for parameter identification. The whole system test method CCT proved to be a valuable tool both for system development as well as for performance evaluation. The advantage of this kind of system test is that non-ideal component interactions and the influence of hydraulics and control under transient operating conditions can be detected and evaluated precisely. The test delivers within 12 days information about all operating conditions that may occur during a whole year and is thus much faster than field testing.
Testing Solar and Heat Pump Systems in laboratory
Models of Sub-Components and Validation for the IEA SHC Task 44 / HPP Annex 38
Part D: Ground Heat Exchangers A technical report of subtask C Report C2 Part D
October 2013 - PDF 1.86MB
By: Fabian Ochs, Dani Carbonell, and Michel Haller
The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) established a standard nomenclature for ground source heat pumps (GSHP). According to this nomenclature that is described in Kavanaugh and Rafferty (1997), GSHPs can be divided in groundwater heat pumps (GWHPs), surface water heat pumps (SWHPs) and ground-coupled heat pumps (GCHPs). GCHP systems can have open loops using the ground with air as a heat carrier or a water reservoir as a direct energy source. In closed loop indirect systems, a ground heat exchanger (GHX) is linked to a water/brine source heat pump. Direct expansion (DX) closed loop systems are those in which the refrigerant of the heat pump circulates directly through the ground coil. For the purpose of the IEA SHC Task44 / HPP Annex 38, only the GCHP indirect systems will be addressed in this report.
Models of Sub-Components and Validation for the IEA SHC Task 44 / HPP Annex 38
Newsletters issued by IEA Task 44 / Annex 38 from 2010 to 2013
A technical report of subtask D – Report D2
October 2013 - PDF 3.58MB
By: Matteo D’Antoni
This reports gathers the 3 Newsletters issued by Task 44 / Annex 38.
Newsletters issued by IEA Task 44 / Annex 38 from 2010 to 2013
Presentation of System Performance Calculation Educational Material
A technical report of Subtask D - Report D1
October 2013 - PDF 1.95MB
By: Matteo D’Antoni
IEA Task 44 / Annex 38 has produced free available educational material on the subject of performance figures evaluation for Solar plus Heat Pump (SHP) systems. The aim is to develop supporting material useful during teaching activities on the topic of Solar plus Heat Pump systems.

The content addresses the definition of several performance indicators developed within Task 44 / Annex 38. The material has been derived from the activities of Subtask B. More detailed information on this topic can be found in the deliverable B1. In the final slides an example is additionally presented for clarifying the relevance and the meaning of each single performance figure.
Presentation of System Performance Calculation Educational Material
The Reference Framework for System Simulations of the IEA SHC Task 44 / HPP Annex 3
A technical report of subtask C Report C1 Part B
September 2013 - PDF 0.59MB
By: Ralf Dott, Michel Y. Haller, Jörn Ruschenburg, Fabian Ochs, Jacques Bony
In Subtask C of the joint IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme Task 44 and Heat Pump Programme Annex 38 (T44A38), different concepts for solar and heat pump heating systems are evaluated based on annual system simulations. For these system simulations, common boundary conditions have to be defined in order to ensure that different performance obtained by the simulation of different system concepts are not a result of different boundary conditions used for the simulation. This report describes the definition of the reference space heat loads based on the definition of reference buildings and heat distribution systems. General boundary conditions such as climatic properties, domestic hot water load and properties of ground and boreholes for the simulation of ground heat exchangers are presented in Part A of this report (Haller et al. 2012).

Starting from the geometry of the single family house buildings that were defined in the IEA SHC Task 32, three reference buildings with different energetic performance have been defined for T44A38. These buildings are named SFH15, SFH45 and SFH100 according to their space heating energy demand which is approximately 15, 45 and 100 kWh/m2a (140 m2 floor area) in the climate of Strasbourg.

Building geometry and construction data define the transmission of heat and solar radiation through the building envelope. Ventilation and shading characteristics as well as internal loads from occupants and electrical equipment are defined. A simplified approach is used for the calculation of the thermal ground coupling of the building.

The reference buildings have been implemented in the simulation platform TRNSYS and results from annual simulations are shown both as tabular values and as curves. For all implementations of this reference framework on other platforms it is important to check if the simulation results match the results shown in this report, which are also available in Excel-spreadsheets on the internal Task website.

The performance of both heat pumps and solar thermal systems depends significantly on the temperature levels of the heat demand. Therefore, for the comparison of the performance of a solar and heat pump system it is of utmost importance that the simulated flow and return temperatures of the heating system are comparable in the first place. This can be achieved by comparing curves of cumulated energy delivered vs. the temperature that marks the maximum of the flow or return temperature at the time of heat delivery. For the reference framework buildings presented in this report these curves are shown for the different climates of Strasbourg, Athens and Helsinki.
The Reference Framework for System Simulations of the IEA SHC Task 44 / HPP Annex 3
Models of Sub-Components and Validation for the IEA SHC Task 44 / HPP Annex 38
Part C: Heat Pump Models A technical report of subtask C Report C2 Part C
June 2013 - PDF 3.28MB
By: Ralf Dott, Thomas Afjei, Andreas Genkinger, Antoine Dalibard, Dani Carbonell, Ricard Consul, Andreas Heinz, Michel Haller, Andreas Witzig, Jorge Facão, Fabian Ochs, Peter Pärisch
Europe launched an ambitious program: 20-20-20 up to 2020, i.e. 20% less greenhouse gases, 20% higher energy efficiency and a share of 20% renewable energies until the year 2020. Ultra-low energy, near or net zero energy buildings are part of the solution. Many of them are equipped with heat pumps. Hence, in future highly energy-efficient buildings, heat pumps will play a key role. Annual efficiency calculation and optimization by means of simulating heat pump heating and cooling systems are very valuable, especially if building and building technology are coupled.
Models of Sub-Components and Validation for the IEA SHC Task 44 / HPP Annex 38
A Review of Market-Available Solar Thermal Heat Pump Systems
A technical report of subtask A
March 2013 - PDF 0.77MB
By: Jörn Ruschenburg and Sebastian Herkel
Editor: Fraunhofer ISE, Freiburg, 21 pages
Solar heat pump systems seen as a combination of a solar thermal collector and a compression heat pump already entered the market with more than 130 systems offered. The aim of this report is to collect, to describe and to analyze these currently (2009-2011) available systems. The undertaken survey on more than 80 companies mostly in Europe shows that most of the systems are used for a combined production of domestic hot water and heat for the space heating circuit. A new classification scheme is proposed and market available solar and heat pump systems are analyzed and classified.

This report is free for distribution.
Models of Sub-Components and Validation for the IEA SHC Task 44 / HPP Annex 38
Part E: Storage models A technical report of subtask C Report C2 Part E
March 2013 - PDF 1.12MB
By: Sunliang Cao, Kai Siren, Andreas Heinz, Sebastian Bonk
In this report, the models for the thermal energy storage systems have been reviewed and listed. The categories of the thermal energy storage models listed in this report are depicted in Figure 1. As shown in Figure 1, the thermal energy storage can be categorized into the latent energy storage (mainly phase change material storage - PCM) and sensible energy storage. For the latent energy storage, there are six representative forms in the practical application: microencapsulated PCM-slurries, capsulated PCM storage modules, multi-layer PCM unit, snow storage, ice storage, and hybrid PCM-sensible storage unit. For the sensible energy storage, there are two representative forms in the practical application: sensible liquids and sensible solids. Furthermore, based on the time scale of the storage, the categories can be divided into short term and seasonal storage. In this report, if the storage module is for seasonal storage, it will be specifically mentioned in the classification. The theoretical principles of different categories of storages are different, and are not the main theme of this report. Representative numerical models have been reviewed and listed according to the categories. In Section 2.1, the latent energy storage models are reviewed and listed, while in Section 2.2, the sensible energy storage models are presented. The validation of these representative models are introduced in Section 3. The summary table for storage models with respect to certain section is listed in Appendix A.
Models of Sub-Components and Validation for the IEA SHC Task 44 / HPP Annex 38
Models of Sub-Components and Validation for the IEA SHC Task 44 / HPP Annex 38
Part A: General Simulation Boundary Conditions A technical report of subtask C Report C1 Part A
March 2013 - PDF 0.62MB
By: Michel Y. Haller, Ralf Dott, Jörn Ruschenburg, Fabian Ochs, Jacques Bony
In Subtask C of the joint IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme Task 44 and Heat Pump Programme Annex 38 (T44A38), different concepts for solar and heat pump heating systems are evaluated based on annual system simulations. For these system simulations, common boundary conditions have to be defined in order to ensure that different performance obtained by the simulation of different system concepts are not a result of different boundary conditions used for the simulation. These common boundary conditions are described in the reference framework for system simulations presented in Part A of this report. Part B of this report describes the definition of the reference space heat loads based on the definition of reference buildings and heat distribution systems (Dott et al. 2012).

The base climates used for the simulation framework are Strasbourg (moderate), Helsinki (cold) and Athens (warm). In addition to these, Davos is used for an extreme mountainous climate and Montreal for an extreme continental climate. The permission has been obtained from Meteotest (Switzerland) to use these Meteonorm climate data-sets for work within T44A38. A mitigation factor of 0.5 has been defined for the estimated wind speed on the collector surface in comparison to the meteorological wind speed.

For the simulation of ground heat exchangers, reference ground properties are defined together with standard heat exchanger design (e.g. number and lengths of probes) for the climates of Strasbourg and Helsinki.

The domestic hot water load is based on the EU mandate M/324 tapping cycle M. In order to be suitable for the use in annual simulations, adaptations have been made in order to introduce one bath tub tapping per week, the dependency of hot water demand on the cold water temperature of each location and annual fluctuations.

In order to compare results of these boundary conditions implemented on different simulation platforms, monthly parameters and heat load distribution curves have been defined. A spreadsheet is provided for download on the internal task website where the results of the reference simulations performed with TRNSYS 16.1 can be compared with the results of the implementation of these boundary conditions on any simulation platform.
Models of Sub-Components and Validation for the IEA SHC Task 44 / HPP Annex 38
Models of Sub-Components and Validation for the IEA SHC Task 44 / HPP Annex 38
Part A: Summary A technical report of subtask C Report C2 Part A
March 2013 - PDF 0.72MB
By: Michel Y. Haller, E. Bertram, R. Dott, T. Afjei, F. Ochs, C. Sunliang, K. Siren, and J.-C. Hadorn
This report has been established in an international cooperation in the framework of the IEA SHC Task 44 / HPP Annex 38 on solar and heat pump systems (T44A38). Subtask C of T44A38 deals with modeling and simulation of solar and heat pump systems and their components. Report C2 of subtask C gives an overview of recent developments and the state of the art in component modeling in this field. This report has been split into several parts:

Part A: Summary
Part B: Collectors
Part C: Heat Pumps
Part D: Storage

The summary presented in this Part A of Report C2 has been published in a paper at the Solar Heating and Cooling Conference SHC 2012 in San Francisco (Haller et al. 2012). The version presented in this report contains additional figures compared to the final printed version in the proceedings of the conference, as well as minor changes in the text, and an additional chapter on storage. It does not contain the editorial changes of the conference proceedings. The original paper reference is: Haller, M.Y., Bertram, E., Dott, R., Afjei, T., Ochs, F. & Hadorn, J.-C., 2012. Review of Component Models for the Simulation of Combined Solar and Heat Pump Heating Systems. Energy Procedia, 30, p.611–622. DOI: 10.1016 / j.egypro.2012.11.071.
Models of Sub-Components and Validation for the IEA SHC Task 44 / HPP Annex 38
Task 44 / Annex 38 Newsletter
Industry Newsletter: Third Issue
February 2013 - PDF 1.66MB
By: M. D’Antoni, R. Fedrizzi, W. Sparber
Over the past few years, systems that combine solar thermal technology and heat pumps have been marketed to heat houses and produce domestic hot water. This new combination of technologies is a welcome advancement, but standards and norms are still required for its long term successful commercialization. Such combinations are complex and need more control strategies and electronics than separate configurations. Therefore the optimisation of the combination is more complex and the cost effectiveness of the combination is not obvious.
Task 44 / Annex 38 Newsletter
Task 44 Highlights 2012
January 2013 - PDF 0.44MB
Combining solar and heat pump technologies is relevant in several aspects: a high renewable fraction can be achieved, the flexibility of the solution makes it a good choice for many homeowners, the solar heat can help enhance the performance of the heat pump by raising the evaporation temperature, the solar heat can be stored at low temperature (0-20 C) thus making good use of the collectors even during the cold season, cloudy days or at night, and a good use of the latent heat of 1 m3 of water
changed into ice.
Models of Sub-Components and Validation for the IEA SHC Task 44 / HPP Annex 38
Part B: Collector Models A technical report of subtask C Report C2 Part B
November 2012 - PDF 0.32MB
By: E. Bertram, D.Carbonell, B. Perers, M.Y. Haller, M. Bunea, S.Eicher
Solar thermal and heat pump systems are one of the key elements for our future high efficient energy supply. In this context, realistic and reliable description of solar thermal collectors in solar heat pump systems is of great importance. This report gives an overview of solar thermal collector models.

For system simulations most of the existing numerical models for glazed solar collectors are applicable. However, for unglazed collectors the typical operating range is extended to low temperatures. As a result, little experience exists under these operating conditions where significant changes of the collector performance may be expected for instance due to condensation of water vapour on the collector surface. In recent works in and outside T44/A38, the effect of condensation has been included to establish collector models for unglazed collectors.

Validation and application of unglazed collector models has been conducted and is described. The investigated models show good agreement with measurements. In addition, work on condensation, in particular, real applications and the transfer of the results to systems simulations along with validation is still needed.

Additional collector models have to be applied for the simulation of photovoltaic thermal (PVT-) collectors. The vast majority of commercially available PVT collectors in combination with a heat pump are modified PV modules and therefore unglazed. Although more experience is needed in this area, first validation measurements reveal, that a simple extension of thermal models by an electrical model suffices for good accuracy in thermal and electrical modelling. To conclude, no principal difficulties are to be expected and a first model
with some validation data is already presented.

Overall, adequate models are available allowing the description of liquid cooled glazed and unglazed collectors. Nevertheless, further validation work should be conducted to confirm the reliability of the models in the extended low temperature applications. This should not be restricted to condensation but also to night-time operation without solar radiation or any other effect in the low temperature operating range. Both, collector model validation from experiments and system model validation and long-term experience from field measurements should be included.
Models of Sub-Components and Validation for the IEA SHC Task 44 / HPP Annex 38
IEA SHC Task 44 / Annex 38 Newsletter
Industry Newsletter: Second Issue
June 2012 - PDF 1.44MB
By: M. D’Antoni, R. Fedrizzi, W. Sparber
This newsletter presents the effort made in classifying Solar and Heat Pumps systems made by Task 44 / Annex 38. A uniform SHP system representation has been presented and a guide line in developing it is shown. This energy flow chart can be applied to any other space heating or DHW generation systems and a direct comparison can be derived. Finally, the framework for the performance figure calculation is presented.
IEA SHC Task 44 / Annex 38 Newsletter
Task 44 Highlights 2011
March 2012 - PDF 0.2MB
Combining solar and heat pump technologies is relevant in several aspects: a high renewable fraction can be achieved, the flexibility of the solution makes it a good choice for many homeowners, the solar heat can help enhance the performance of the heat pump by raising the evaporation temperature, the solar heat can be stored at low temperature (0-20 C) thus making good use of the collectors even during the cold season, cloudy days or at night, and a good use of the latent heat of 1 m3 of water changed into ice.
Task 44 Highlights 2011
A comparative analysis of market available solar thermal heat pump systems
2012 - PDF 0.96MB
By: Jörn Ruschenburg and Sebastian Herkel
During the last years, many combined solar thermal heat pump systems have entered the market for residential heating systems. Regarding testing and assessment of these systems, existing methods and standards are limited on national and international level. Currently, several approaches are developed and presented. The precondition for any such work is a thorough review of the existing market, revealing for example the relevance of non-standard components and configurations.
Document Number: 2012.022
A simplified heat pump model for use in solar plus heat pump system simulation studies
2012
By: Perers B., Anderssen E., Nordman R., Kovacs P.
ISBN: 2012.018
Direct coupling solar and heat pump at large scale: experimental feedback from an existing plant
2012
By: Fraga C., Mermoud F., Hollmuller P., Pampaloni E., Lachal B.
Document Number: 2012.010
Ein Jahr Feldmessung von fünf Solar-Kombianlagen mit Wärmepumpen
2012 - PDF 1.98MB
By: Alexander Thür, Martin Vukits, Walter Becke
Heizungs- und Warmwasserbereitungssysteme basierend auf Kombinationen aus
Solarthermie und Wärmepumpen werden aktuell am Markt mehr und mehr
nachgefragt und inzwischen auch von vielen Systemanbietern angeboten. Die
Integration der Wärmepumpe in ein Solarkombisystem ist aber um einiges komplexer
als andere Zusatzheizenergiequellen, da auch die Energiequelle der Wärmepumpe
(Verdampferkreis) mit dem gesamten System verknüpft sein kann. Neben den
typischen Quellen Umgebungsluft oder Erdreich kann auch der Solarkollektor oder
auch der Pufferspeicher als Energiequelle in unterschiedlichsten Schaltungen
genutzt werden.
Document Number: 2012.024
Experiments for combined solar and heat pump systems
2012 - PDF 0.36MB
By: Peter Pärisch, Jonas Warmuth, Erik Bertram, Rainer Tepe
The operation of ground coupled heat pumps in combination with solar collectors requires comprising knowledge of the component behavior under non-nominal conditions. Especially higher source and lower sink temperatures, varying flow rates, material characteristics and sophisticated control strategies have to be taken into account.
Document Number: 2012.019
Field test of a novel combined solar thermal and heat pump system with an ice store
2012
By: Loose A., Drück H.
Document Number: 2012.016
IEA Solar and Heat pump systems
2012
By: Hadorn J.-C.
Document Number: 2012.012
Impact of solar heat pump system concepts on seasonal performance - Simulation studies
2012 - PDF 0.4MB
By: Erik Bertram, Peter Pärisch, Rainer Tepe
Solar and heat pump systems promise a significant efficiency improvement for heating systems. In this context three different system concepts are compared within TRNSYS simulations for solar heat pump systems with borehole heat exchangers and flat plate collectors. The concepts are examined with solar heat injection either to the hot side for domestic hot water preparation, to the cold side of the heat pump for thermal borehole support or in terms of a combination of both, hot and cold side injection. Connected to the hot side of the heat pump, the increase of the seasonal performance factor is 1.2. If connected to the cold side, the impact is typically below 0.2, but it significantly depends on the specific heat exchanger length and the collector area.
Document Number: 2012.001
Investigation of combined solar thermal and heat pump systems - Field and laboratory tests
2012 - PDF 0.24MB
By: Loose A., Bonk S., Drück H.
The technological combination of solar thermal systems with hear pumps continues to be a highly topical subject in the market of sustainable domestic hot water and space heating concepts.
Document Number: 2012.015
Kompakte Solarheizung mit integrierter Systemüberwachung
2012 - PDF 0.24MB
By: Dr.-Ing. Ulrich Leibfried, Dipl.-Ing. Andreas Siegemund
Ein großer Anteil der Endenergie wird für Heizwärme im Gebäudebestand verbraucht. Von
einer zügigen Reduktion des Heizwärmeverbrauchs in diesem Sektor hängt maßgeblich das
Erreichen der Klimaziele ab. Grundsätzlich haben Solartechniken zur Bereitstellung von
Niedertemperaturwärme das Potential, kombiniert mit Gebäudesanierungsmaßnahmen einen Großteil der konventionell dafür aufgewandten Primärenergie zu ersetzen bzw. zu vermeiden. Als integrierte Systeme mit anderen EE-Techniken sind Einsparungen bis zu 100 % möglich. Dies ist nicht nur technisch, sondern auch wirtschaftlich mit heutigen Techniken möglich. Auf der anderen Seite erfordert die effiziente Integration von Solarthermie in die Hauswärmeversorgung und die gleichzeitige Reduktion des Verbrauchs eine hohe Fachkompetenz für jede individuelle Anlage. Dies ist ein Hauptbremsfaktor für die rasche Verbreitung von solar beheizten Häusern, bei denen der verbleibende Energiebedarf nur noch durch eine Unterstützung (fossil, elektrischer Strom aus dem Netz) gedeckt wird.
Document Number: 2012.026
Measurement and modelling of a multifunctional solar plus heat pump systems from Nilan. Experiences from one year of test operation
2012 - PDF 0.44MB
By: Bengt Perers, Elsa Andersen, Simon Furbo, Ziqian Chen, Agisilaos Tsouvalas
A multifunctional solar and heat pump unit from Nilan has been installed in the Performance Test Facility (PTF) at DTU Byg Denmark. It is part of the IEA Task 44 cooperation. Multifunctional means in this case: Hot water, Air heating, Ventilation, Air heat recovery, Air filtering and Floor heating. Nilan units, with additional air cooling and CO2 control, are also available.
The unit has been in operation for more than one year. The aim has been to stress the system operation to different conditions in the lab, to learn more about the performance, but also to find possible improvements especially concerning advanced control. The operation into extreme states of high hot water demand and low air ventilation rates, has also been done to develop and validate a TRNSYS system model. The model was developed and validated for the first period of operation mainly winter and early spring conditions. Now the system has been in operation during all seasons and a full year
model could be developed and validated. The model also includes new possibilities for solar collector loop and heat pump operation control.
Document Number: 2012.020
Mobile solar assisted heat pump with direct expansion
2012 - PDF 0.7MB
By: Tomislav CUTIC, Josip PASANEC, Jakov BALETA, Tonko CURKO, Vladimir SOLDO
This paper presents development of direct-expansion solar assisted heat pump system (DX-SAHP) along with the results of the trial testing. The main purpose of the developed unit with 300 l water tank is to heat up the water by 45 to 55°C. The unit is designed as a test rig enabling all necessary measurements to evaluate potential of solar irradiation for domestic water heating on various locations. A mobile and compact-in-form-and-size device has been developed representing a gradual step towards the commercial application. First set of measurements has been carried out explaining procedures in examination of the working parameters. The evaporation dynamics of the refrigerant in
the collector/evaporator has been examined by means of quantitative infra-red thermography method. Computational fluid dynamics simulation has been carried out providing temperature distribution in the water tank. It was compared with the results obtained by temperature measurements by means of thermocouples that were placed in the water tank.
Document Number: 2012.005
Modell eines unverglasten photovoltaisch-thermischen Kollektors basierend auf genormten Prüfverfahren
2012 - PDF 0.51MB
By: Martin Stegmann, Erik Bertram, Gunter Rockendorf, Stefan Janßen
Existierende Modelle für photovoltaisch-thermische Kollektoren (PVT-Kollektoren)
simulieren die Energieströme mit Hilfe von physikalischen Ansätzen. Daher benötigen
sie zur Parametrierung konstruktive Details, was die Parametrierung aufwendig
bis unmöglich macht. Zudem gelten die meisten dieser Modelle für verglaste PVTKollektoren. Aus diesem Grund wurde innerhalb des Projektes „Solare Gebäude-
Wärmeversorgung mit unverglasten photovoltaisch-thermischen Kollektoren, Erdsonden
und Wärmepumpen“1 ein neues Modell für unverglaste PVT-Kollektoren entwickelt,
das zur Parametrierung ausschließlich Daten aus genormten Prüfverfahren
benötigt. Dementsprechend lässt sich das Verhalten eines PVT-Kollektors mit für den
Anwender leicht zugänglichen Daten ohne Kenntnis des inneren Aufbaus einschließlich
der physikalischen Eigenschaften der Komponenten beschreiben. Das Modell
wurde in einen TRNSYS-Type umgesetzt und während einer einjährigen Messung in
einer Pilotanlage validiert.
Document Number: 2012.023
Numerical analysis of heat pump models. Comparative study between equation-fit and refrigerant cycle based models
2012 - PDF 0.13MB
By: D.Carbonell, J.Cadafalch, P. Parisch, R. Consul
An equation-fit (EF) and a refrigerant cycle (RC) based heat pump models have been implemented, validated, analyzed and compared to each other under steady state conditions for a brine to water heat pump. Models validations have been provided through comparisons against experimental data obtained at ISFH. The advantages and disadvantages of the both models have been identified. This work provides significant inputs regarding the selection of a specific model depending on the needs. Analysis of mass flow rates and calculations far from typical catalogue data (non-standard conditions) are provided. The main conclusions can be summarized as: i) the EF model is recommended when the boundary conditions for the estimation and prediction modes are the same and when non-standard conditions are considered; ii) the RC model is the chosen alternative when the mass flow rates are modified from the estimation to the prediction mode.
Document Number: 2012.004
Performance of solar collectors under low temperature conditions: measurements and simulations results
2012 - PDF 0.31MB
By: Mircea Bunea, Sara Eicher, Catherine Hildbrand, Jacques Bony, Bengt Perers, Stéphane Citherlet1
The performance of four solar thermal collectors (flat plate, evacuated tube, unglazed with rear insulation and unglazed without rear insulation) was experimentally measured and simulated for temperatures below ambient. The influence of several parameters (e.g. collector inlet temperature, air temperature, condensation) is investigated under different operating conditions (day and night). Under some conditions condensation might occur and heat gains could represent up to 55% of the total unglazed collector energy by night. Two TRNSYS collector models including condensation heat gains are also evaluated and results compared to experimental measurements. A mathematical model is also under development to include, in addition to the condensation phenomena, the frost, the rain and the long-wave radiation gains/losses on the rear of the solar collector. While the potential gain from rain was estimated to be around 2%, frost heat gains were measured to be up to 40% per day, under specific conditions. Overall, results have shown that unglazed collectors are more efficient than flat plate or evacuated tube collectors at low operation temperatures or for night conditions, making them more suitable for heat pump applications.
Document Number: 2012.025
Review of component models for the simulation of combined solar and heat pump heating systems
2012
By: Haller M.Y., Betram E., Dott R., Afjei T., Ochs F., Hadorn J.-C.
Document Number: 2012.014
Solar and heat pump systems. An analysis of several combinations in Mediterranean areas
2012 - PDF 0.41MB
By: Moia Pol A., Moll V.M., Barcelo M.A., Nadal R.P.
Recently the systems that combine solar thermal technology and heat pumps have been marketed to heat houses and produce domestic hot water. [1] This new combination of technologies is a welcome advancement, and need to be improved in the configuration. These systems will be cleaner as long as the electricity will improve the renewable energy fraction and they improve the efficiency. In Mediterranean areas, where there are less months of heating and higher temperatures, the solar thermal systems for heating have combined with water-water heat pump with a big storage tank can have better efficiency and less emissions than the geothermal heat pump system or a conventional heat pump.
Document Number: 2012.018
Solar assisted heat pump for domestic hot water production
2012
By: Eicher S., Hildbrand C., Bony J., Bunea M., Hadorn J.-C., Citherlet S.
Document Number: 2012.008
System evaluation of combined solar & heat pump systems
2012
By: Dott R., Genkinger A., Afjei T.
Document Number: 2012.007
System-Jahresarbeitszahl grösser 4.0 mit Luft-Wasser Wärmepumpe kombiniert mit Solarwärme
2012
By: Haller M.Y., Frank E.
ISBN: 2012.013
Unglazed PVT collectors as additional heat source in heat pump systems with borehole heat exchanger
2012
By: Betram E., Glembin J., Rockendorf G.
Document Number: 2012.002
Uniform representation of system performance for solar hybrid systems
2012
By: Fedrizzi R., Malenkovic I., Melograno P., Haller M.Y., Schicktanz M., Herkel S., Ruschenburg J.
Document Number: 2012.009
Validation of the numerical model of a turnkey Solar Combi+ system
2012
By: D'Antoni M., Ferruzzi G., Bettoni D., Fedrizzi R.
Document Number: 2012.006
Wärmepumpensysteme mit unabgedeckten photovoltaisch- termischen Kollektoren
2012
By: Betram E., Stegmann M., Kundmüller K., Rosinski C.
Document Number: 2012.003
IEA SHC Task 44 / Annex 38 Newsletter
Industry Newsletter: First Issue
October 2011 - PDF 1.65MB
By: M. D’Antoni, W. Sparber
This newsletter presents the status of the work of the SHC Task 44 / HPP Annex 38 or T44A38 work. The solar industry and the heat pump industry are the primary targets. The content reflects the activities along the course of the work and not necessarily the final conclusions that will be published in all deliverables at the end of the work duration (December 2013).
IEA SHC Task 44 / Annex 38 Newsletter
Heat pump systems with borehole heat exchanger and unglazed PVT collector
September 2011 - PDF 0.89MB
By: Erik Bertram, Martin Stegmann, Gunter Rockendorf
In the future energy supply both efficient heat pump systems for heat generation and photovoltaic (PV) electricity production will play an important role. Therefore, a heat pump system with a combined heat source consisting of a photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) collector and a borehole heat exchanger (BHE) is assumed to be a promising solution, because this particular combination provides a double benefit compared to conventional heat pump and PV-systems. First, the PV cells in the PVT collector are cooled, leading to lower cell temperatures and a higher PV efficiency. Second, the heat from the PVT collector raises the temperature level of the heat pump and the borehole heat exchanger. Consequently, the temperature increase of the heat source leads to a higher heat pump performance factor.
Within a research project, a pilot system has been built up and experimentally evaluated. Simulation studies allow analyzing the system behavior and extrapolating the results.
Document Number: 2011.03
On the Potential of Using Heat from Solar Thermal Collectors for Heat Pump Evaporators
September 2011 - PDF 0.4MB
By: Michel Y. Haller, Elimar Frank
Solar thermal collectors can be used in combination with heat pumps to cover the heat demand for space heating and domestic hot water preparation. Different concepts exist for the combination of these two components into a system concept. Some of these concepts offer the ability to switch from using heat from the solar collectors directly to serve the demand to using heat from the solar collectors indirectly as a heat source for the evaporator of the heat pump. In the same system concept, the heat pump may be able to switch from using heat from the solar thermal collector to using an alternative low temperature heat source, such as ambient air. In this paper a general mathematical relationship is derived for determining whether using heat from solar collectors for the evaporator of the heat pump instead of using it directly is beneficial for the energetic performance of these systems. It is shown that there is a limit for the solar irradiation on the
collector field above which using collector heat for the evaporator of the heat pump instead of using it directly is not advantageous. This irradiation limit depends on the characteristic performance curves of the solar collector and of the heat pump, as well as on the operating conditions, above all on the temperature levels of the heat sink and the different heat sources. Based on dynamic annual simulations, examples are shown for the maximum amount of heat that can be delivered from the collector to the heat pump evaporator at times where this mode of operation is of advantage for the performance of a solar and air source heat pump heating system. Both the mathematical relationship and the examples show that using solar collector heat for the evaporator of a heat pump is more beneficial for systems that operate with a large temperature difference between the non-solar heat source and the heat demand.
Document Number: 2011.011
Overview on Solar Thermal Plus Heat Pump Systems and Review of Monitoring Results
August 2011 - PDF 0.44MB
By: Wolfram Sparber, Klaus Vajen, Sebastian Herkel, Jörn Ruschenburg, Alexander Thür, Roberto Fedrizzi, Matteo D’Antoni
In recent years several companies started offering Solar thermal And Heat Pump Systems (SAHPS) on the European Market; already in 2009 an overview was given for example by Zörner W. et al (2009). For single family houses the systems are offered as pre defined package (kit) solutions. The systems deliver thermal energy for heating, domestic hot water and eventually as well cooling to the building usually without any further back up burner. The hydraulic schemes of the single systems, especially the degree of integration of the solar thermal and electrical driven heat pump unit vary significantly. The same is true for the used low temperature heat source for the heat pump where ground heat exchangers (horizontal and vertical), ambient air, specific solar collectors, phase change material storages (e.g. ice/water) and exhaust air are implemented.
Document Number: 2011.028
Integrierte Systemlösungen für Bestand und Neubau als Weg zum Erreichen der Klimaziele
German
July 2011 - PDF 7.73MB
By: Dr.-Ing. Ulrich Leibfried
Der Solarwärme-Markt befindet sich im Umbruch. In den vergangenen Jahren bestand auf der einen Seite eine starke Abhängigkeit der Marktentwicklung vom Ölpreis und der Fördersituation, auf der anderen Seite entstand eine immer ausgeprägtere Konkurrenzsituation zu anderen Technologien der Erneuerbaren Energien, allen voran der Photovoltaik, aber auch Wärmepumpen oder Pellets. Dies ist eine Konkurrenz in der öffentlichen Wahrnehmung (heute: Solarenergie = Photovoltaik), aber auch der Wettbewerb um Installationskapazitäten, Dachflächen und Endkunden. In Zukunft geht es auch um die direkte ökonomische Konkurrenz für die Wärmeerzeugung, insbesondere durch die Kombination von PVAnlagen mit Luft-Wärmepumpen.
Document Number: 2011.016
Validation of a Dynamic Model for Unglazed Collectors including Condensation. Application for Standardised Testing and Simulation in TRNSYS and IDA
July 2011 - PDF 1.72MB
By: Bengt Perers
An improved unglazed collector model has been validated for use in TRNSYS and IDA and also for future extension of the EN12975 collector test standard. The basic model is the same as used in the EN12975 test standard in the QDT dynamic method. In this case with the addition of a condensation term that can handle the operation of unglazed collectors below the dew point of the air. This is very desirable for simulation of recharging of ground source energy systems and direct operation of unglazed collectors together with a heat pump.
Document Number: 2011.025
Field Test for Performance Monitoring of Combined Solar Thermal and Heat Pump Systems
June 2011 - PDF 1.72MB
By: Anja Loose, Harald Drück, Nadine Hanke and Frank Thole
The technological combination of solar thermal systems with heat pumps continues to be a highly topical subject in the context of sustainable heating concepts, especially for single family houses. In the past years more and more different types of such combined systems have been developed and introduced to the market for both domestic hot water and space heating. The main background for this development is the expected increase of efficiency for both, the solar heating system and the heat pump, and further synergetic effects in comparison to separate conventional heating systems due to the mutual synergetic interaction of the components and high system integration. This can lead to high system performances, thus to a decrease of electric power consumption and emission of greenhouse gases like CO2, respectively [Loose, 2010].
Document Number: 2011.018
Solar and Heat Pump Systems: Status of IEA SHC Task 44 & HPP Annex 38
June 2011 - PDF 2.24MB
By: Jean-Christophe Hadorn
Over the past few years, systems that combine solar thermal technology and heat pumps have been marketed to heat houses and produce domestic hot water. This new combination of technologies is a welcome advancement, but standards and norms are still required for its long term successful commercialization.
Document Number: 2011.009
Test System for the Investigation of the Synergy Potential of Solar Collectors and Borehole Heat Exchangers in Heat Pump Systems
June 2011 - PDF 0.83MB
By: Peter Pärisch, Maik Kirchner, Wolfgang Wetzel, Sheila Voß, Rainer Tepe
The wide variety of solar assisted heat pump systems makes it difficult to assess the energetic behavior and to find optimized solutions. In order to come to a deeper understanding, scientists from different subjects are cooperating with the aim to analyze the synergy effects of solar heat and heat pumps with borehole heat exchangers (BHE).
Document Number: 2011.024
Combining Heat Pumps With Solar Energy For Domestic Hot Water Production
February 2011 - PDF 0.11MB
By: Ralf Dott, Andreas Genkinger, Fabia Moret, Thomas Afjei
The knowledge about the reduction of heat demand in dwellings has reached a sophisticated level, especially regarding the building envelope. The next step are net zero energy buildings, where the total amount of yearly energy demand is covered by building integrated generation of energy from renewable sources. The most promising technologies are solar heat panels, photovoltaics and heat pumps. But it is not yet obvious which combination is best.
Document Number: 2011.008
A NALYSIS ON THE OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLAR WATER HEATER IN COMBINATION WITH AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER
2011 - PDF 0.15MB
By: Jiang Ai-guo, Wang Xiao-zhong
Solar water heater cannot supply hot water in cloudy and raining days alone. It in combination with air source heat pump water heater (ASHPWH) is a good choice. The performance of the two kinds of water heater is affected by the water temperature. It is important that the ASHPWH operate at a right temperature of the water. A solar water heater with 4m2 flat-plate collector assisted by a 1.5kW ASHPWH is studied in this paper. The results show that both the collector efficiency of the solar water heater and the COP of the ASHPWH system decreases as the water temperature increases. The highest and lowest collector efficiency of the solar water heater are 54.4% and 45.6% respectively. The COP of the ASHPWH system ranges from 6.48 to 2.61 as the water temperature increases. Operating sequences of these two kinds of water heater affect solar energy utilization ratio and the power input of the ASHPWH system.
Document Number: 2011.002
A PV/T and heat pump based trigeneration system model for residential application
2011 - PDF 0.54MB
By: Joyce A.,Coehlo L., Martins J., Tavares N., Pereira R., Magalhaes P.
A solar trigeneration system, based on photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) collectors, photovoltaic (PV) modules and a heat pump unit for heating and cooling, is modelled to forecast the thermal and electric yields of the system. The aim of the trigeneration system is to provide enough electricity, domestic hot water (DHW), heating and cooling power to meet the typical demand of an urban single family dwelling with limited roof area and allow the household to achieve a positive net energy status. The PV/T collectors and PV modules
provide the electricity while the former also powers the DHW component of the trigeneration system. The heating and cooling components rely on a vapour compression cycle heat pump unit powered by electricity. In Fong et al. (2010), solar-powered electric compression refrigeration was found to have the most energy saving potential in subtropical climates. Thus, a heat pump based cooling system is a cost effective solution for residential applications in Lisbon, Portugal. Thus, according to the dwelling's location, construction details and energy demand patterns, the model computes the system's net results by comparing the dwelling demand with the trigeneration system supply. The paper presents a breakdown of the proposed trigeneration system model and describes each component briefly. Preliminary results produced by the model are presented and analysed in order to identify possible ways of improving the overall system performance.
Document Number: 2011.013
Current work on performance evaluation of solar thermal and heat pump hybrid systems within IEA SHC Task 44 / HPP Annex 38 and IEE QAiST Project
2011
By: Malenkovic I.
Document Number: 2011.020
Development of performance test methods for combined solar thermal and heat pump systems
2011
By: Loose A., Mette B., Bonk S., Drück H.
Document Number: 2011.019
Domestic solar/heat pump heating systems with low and high efficiency collectors in Mediterranean areas
2011 - PDF 0.2MB
By: Andreu Moià Pol, Miquel Alomar Barceló, Ramon Pujol Nadal, Víctor Martínez Moll,
Recently systems that combine solar thermal technology and heat pumps have been marketed to heat houses and produce domestic hot water. This new combination of technologies is a welcome advancement, and need to be improved in the configuration. These systems will be cleaner as long as the electricity will improve the renewable energy fraction and they improve its efficiency. In Mediterranean areas, where there are less months of heating, the solar thermal systems for heating have a several months
with overheating; this fact is an obstacle for the designers and the users. The combination of solar-thermal collectors and heat pumps provides interesting possibilities for innovative and energy efficient heating systems with a high fraction of solar energy. Despite is high cost these systems are gaining more and more importance due to the rising cost of the limited fossil resources. Several configurations of solar systems have been studied. Some of them use cheap collectors that make the investment more attractive.
Document Number: 2011.022
Einfluss der Neigung auf den äusseren konvektiven Wärmeübergang unabgedeckter Absorber
2011
By: Philippen D., Haller M.Y., Frank E.
Document Number: 2011.026
Energetic, economical and geographical evaluation of different solar thermally driven heat pump systems for heating and cooling around Europe
2011 - PDF 0.72MB
The present work shows an approximation method for solar designers to evaluate the feasibility of solar thermal plants in Europe depending on the type of solar collector used, the coordinates where the system is going to be installed and the types of summer and winter demands to be covered classified by the design temperatures needed for the processes.

This method evaluates the maximum amount of energy able to be captured from the sun to satisfy the needs
of a residential building in terms of Domestic Hot Water (DHW), heating and cooling demands.

The final result of the work is a matrix where it is evaluated the combination among:
· Two different technologies of collectors: Flat Plate and evacuated tube collectors
· Two different ways of covering heating demands. Thermal collectors combined with thermal back
up and thermal collectors combined with Thermally Driven Heat Pumps(TDHP).
· Energetic and economical results plotted in maps will permit easy comparisons among the
configurations.
Document Number: 2011.027
Entwicklung von Prüfverfahren für Anlagen mit Kombination aus Wärmepumpen und Solarthermie
2011
By: Haller M.Y.
Document Number: 2011.12
Monitoring and simulation of a passive house with innovative solar and heat pump system
2011 - PDF 0.22MB
By: F. Ochs, S. Peper, J. Schnieders, R. Pfluger, M. Bianchi Janetti, W. Feist
The very low energy demand of passive houses, which has been proven by measurement, is in the range of the target of the Nearly-Zero-Energy directive. Hence, the foundation of a development is already laid today which will be introduced in Europe in 9 years (the recast Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, EPBD, Directive 2010/31/EU). Due to the very high level of thermal insulation and the resulting very low heating demand and heating load, passive houses show a well balanced load duration curve. The domestic hot water demand can be covered with a high fraction by solar energy. However, solar heating of passive houses is under most circumstances poorly effective as the heating demand is confined to few months in main winter.
Document Number: 2011.023
Optimierung der Einbindung eines 28 m3 – Wasserspeichers in die Beheizung und die WW-Versorgung mit WP und Solartermik
2011
By: Kurmann P., Ursenbacher T.
Document Number: 2011.015
Parametric analysis of a novel Solar Combi+ configuration for commercialization
2011
By: D'Antoni M. Bettoni D. Fedrizzi R. Sparber W.
Document Number: 2011.006
Performance testing of solar thermal systems combined with heat pumps
2011
By: Mette B., Drück H., Bachmann S., Müller-Steinhagen H.
Document Number: 2011.021
Progettazione e analisi numerica di un quadro di controllo standardizzato per applicazione Solar Combi+ di piccola taglia
2011
By: Bettoni D., D'Antoni M., Fedrizzi R.
Document Number: 2011.004
Simulation study on the performance of solar and geothermal hybrid R22 heat pump
2011 - PDF 0.48MB
By: Byun Kang, Jae-Kyeong OH, Cha-Sik Park, and HongHyun Cho
A simulation study on the performance of the solar and geothermal hybrid heat pump system by using R22 was carried out with a variation of operating conditions. The system was consisted of solar system (concentric evacuated tube solar collector, heat storage tank) and geothermal heat pump system (double pipe heat exchanger, electric expansion valve and compressor). As a result, the heating capacity is linearly decreased from 13.2 kW to 11 kW as the heat pump operating temperature increases from 40oC to 48oC. Besides, the heating COP decreases by 13.6% from 4.4 to 3.8 when the ground temperature raises 13oC to 17oC. The heating capacity is increased by 4.7% from 11.5 kW to 12.2 kW and the heating COP rises by 19% from 4.7 to 5.6.
Document Number: 2011.014
Steigert die Nutzung von Solarkollektoren als Wärmequelle für Wärmepumpen die System-Arbeitzahl?
2011
By: Haller M.Y., Frank E.
Document Number: 2011.010
THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF A COMPACT SOLAR ASSISTED HEAT PUMP
2011 - PDF 0.25MB
By: Samuel Luna Abreu, Sérgio Pereira da Rocha and Joaquim Manoel Gonçalves
Heat Pumps to supply hot-water for domestic consumption are widely used especially in countries where electric energy is also employed for this purpose. Brazil is a country where most of the domestic hot-water requirements are supplied by electric energy, but basically it is done with electric showers. This solution, although cheap for the user in terms of initial investment, has a strong impact on the generation, transmission and distribution – GTD costs. Electric showers have an average power of more than 5 kW, and are a strong contribution to the residential electric energy end use (around 24% in Brazil (Procel/Eletrobras, 2007)). Also, they are partially responsible by the “peak hour” of the power consumption in the residential sector that occurs from 18:00 to 21:00 hours in Brazil. The consumption growth observed in the last years leads to a lack of reliability of the system, and energy efficiency measures are necessary to avoid risks and to postpone investments in GTD. Solar hot-water systems have been used as an effective way to mitigate the problems caused by the intensive use of electric showers, however, this solution faces some problems when used in low-income housing units: absence of hot-water piping, inadequate structure to install collectors and thermal storage, increase of specific thermal energy costs for small systems, and use of an electric shower as the backup system.
Document Number: 2011.001
A Transient Model For Radiant Heating And Cooling Terminal Heat Exchangers Applied To Radiant Floors And Ceiling Panels
January 2011 - PDF 0.08MB
By: Dani Carbonell, Jordi Cadafalch and Ricard Consul
Radiant heating and cooling terminal heat exchangers have become very popular in the last decades because of the thermal comfort they provide and the energy savings potential respect to conventional systems.
Heating and Cooling With Heat Pumps In Swiss Residential Buildings
January 2011 - PDF 0.38MB
By: Ralf Dott, Carsten Wemhöner,Thomas Afjei
The energy demand for heating decreases in highly-insulated dwellings. Comfort cooling becomes more important due to higher thermal loads and rising summer thermal comfort demands. Heat pumps can provide space heat and domestic hot water but also may provide cooling. Heat sources of heat pumps often can be used for passive cooling. The aim of the project is to support energy efficient solutions for heating and cooling of residential buildings. First step should always be reducing the heat loads by e.g. shading and night-time ventilation.
Document Number: 2011.007
Kombination Solarthermie / Wärmepumpe inkl. Abwasser-Wärmerückgewinnung (AWR)
German
January 2011 - PDF 0.13MB
By: W. Lerch, A. Heinz, C. Fink, J. Breidler, W. Wagner
In Niedrigenergiehäusern ist der Anteil des Wärmebedarfs für das Warmwasser am Gesamtwärmebedarf relativ hoch und kann bei Passivhäusern sogar größer sein als der Heizwärmebedarf. Zusätzlich sind für das Erreichen des Warmwasserkomforts höhere Temperaturen erforderlich als dies für den Vorlauf z. B. bei einer Fußbodenheizung nötig ist. Dadurch steigt die Relevanz des Energiebedarfs für Warmwasser mit zunehmendem Dämmstandard der Gebäude. Aus diesen Gründen wird auch die Nutzung der im Abwasser vorhandenen Wärme über eine Abwasser-Wärmerückgewinnungsanlage mit sinkendem Heizwärmebedarf interessant.
Document Number: 2011.017
Solar and Heat Pump Systems
IEA SHC Task 44 & HPP
October 2010 - PDF 0.06MB
By: Jean-Chistophe Hardon
Over the past few years, systems that combine solar thermal technology and heat pumps have been marketed to heat houses and produce domestic hot water. This new combination of technologies is a welcome advancement, but standards and norms are still required for its long term successful commercialization.
Document Number: 2010.004
Source froide solaire pour pompe à chaleur avec un COP annuel de 5 généralisable dans le neuf et la rénovation
Swiss
October 2010 - PDF 2.97MB
By: Floriane Mermoud, Pierre Hollmuller, Bernard Lachal, Jad Khoury
Le projet Solarcity, basé à Satigny (GE), est un nouveau complexe immobilier de 9550 m², comprenant 78 logements répartis dans 4 bâtiments divisés en 10 immeubles. L’enveloppe énergétique a été conçue pour respecter le standard Minergie, et le système de chauffage est basé sur une pompe à chaleur par immeuble utilisant comment source froide 1160 m² de capteurs solaires non couverts.
COP5 : Source froide solaire pour pompe à chaleur avec un COP annuel de 5 généralisable dans le neuf et la rénovation
July 2010 - PDF 2.97MB
By: Floriane Mermoud, Pierre Hollmuller, Bernard Lachal, Jad Khoury
Le projet Solarcity, basé à Satigny (GE), est un nouveau complexe immobilier de 9550 m²,
comprenant 78 logements répartis dans 4 bâtiments divisés en 10 immeubles. L’enveloppe
énergétique a été conçue pour respecter le standard Minergie, et le système de chauffage
est basé sur une pompe à chaleur par immeuble utilisant comment source froide 1160 m² de
capteurs solaires non couverts.
Document Number: 2010.008
Solar and Heat Pump Systems
May 2010 - PDF 0.1MB
The new combined SHC Task and HPP Annex called “Solar and heat pump systems” has started ! It will extend from 2010 to 21013. It is a join effort of the SHC and the HPP bodies and will be lead by one operationg agent (JC Hadorn of Switzerland). For SHC it is Task 44 and for HPP the annex number will be given soon.
Solarthermie und Wärmepumpe Erfahrungen aus 3 Heizperioden Entwicklung einer solaren Systemarbeitszahl
2010 - PDF 0.15MB
By: Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Frank Thole, Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Nadine Hanke
Solarthermieanlagen und Wärmepumpen sind mittlerweile als regenerative Energieerzeuger in der Politik, in den Förderprogrammen und Markt aktzeptiert und angekommen. Auch die Kombination findet immer mehr Anhänger, wobei die unterschiedlichsten Konzepte angeboten werden. Insbesondere die hydraulische und regelungstechnische Kombination auf der kalten Quellenseite der Wärmepumpe lassen Effizienzsprünge erwarten. Seit 3 Jahren wird von der Fa. Schüco International KG ein umfangreicher Feldtest einer Solarthermie – Wärmepumpenkombination getestet.
Nach Konzeptstudien und umfangreichen Simulationen mit Parametervariationen kristallisierte sich ein Erfolgsversprechendes System heraus. Aufbauend auf eine heizungsunterstützende Solarthermieanlage mit Kombispeicher wurde die Erdsonde einer Sole-Wasserwärmepumpe wie ein zweiter Speicher an die Kollektoranlagen angeschlossen.
Auf der Wärmesenkenseite wurde die Kombination zwischen Solarkombispeicher und Wärmepumpe nach einer bivalent-regenerativen Betriebsweise gesteuert. Bei Vorliegen von ausreichend Solarwärme wird die Wärmepumpe gesperrt und die Solarwärme vorrangig in das Heizsystem geleitet. Damit werden die Laufzeiten der Wärmepumpe gering gehalten und gleichzeitig stehen die niedrigen Rücklauftemperaturen jederzeit sowohl dem
Solarspeicher als auch der Wärmepumpe zur Verfügung. Für eine Absicherung dieses Konzeptes über eine Simulation hinaus sicherzustellen wurde ein umfangreicher Feldtest durchgeführt. Nach mittlerweile 3 Heizperioden kann nun hiermit dokumentiert werden, dass die hohen Erwartungen in die Vorteile dieser Kombination voll erfüllt wurden.
Document Number: 2010.007
Systematische Gliederung der Systemkombination von solarthermischen Anlagen und Wärmepumpen
2010 - PDF 0.08MB
By: Michel Y. Haller, Elimar Frank, Christoph Trinkl, Wilfried Zorner
Condensation Heat Gains on Unglazed Solar Collectors in Heat Pump Systems
January 2010 - PDF 0.28MB
By: E. Bertram, J. Glembin, J. Scheuren, G. Rockendorf
The performance of ground coupled heat pump systems with borehole heat exchangers can be significantly improved by unglazed solar collectors. In this combination, collector operation temperatures below the ambient air level and hence additional condensation heat gains occur. For an investigated and monitored system in Limburg, Germany, the condensation yield was determined to 3.7% or 19 kWh/(a m²). Thereby, condensation shows a significant dependency on the season. During the summer months, only 0.8% of the total collector yield is induced by condensation, while in winter it increases to 13%. The implementation of an established condensation model to the collector model according to EN 12975 is demonstrated. As main result the investigated the heat pump system performance is only marginally improved due to the condensation heat gains.
Document Number: 2010.001
Systematic Classification of Combined Solar Thermal and Heat Pump Systems
January 2010 - PDF 0.48MB
By: Elimar Frank, Michel Haller, Sebastian Herkel and Jorn Ruschenburg
In this paper several approaches are discussed for the analysis and comparison of combined solar thermal and heat pump systems. The discussion is based on a detailed literature review and investigations on market available systems. Based on this, an approach to describe and systematically classify combined solar thermal and heat pump systems is presented.
Document Number: 2010.003
Unglazed Photovoltaic Thermal Collectors in Heat Pump Systems
January 2010 - PDF 0.34MB
By: E. Bertram, M. Stegmann, J. Scheuren, C. Rosinski, K. Kundmüller
Unglazed Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) collectors provide very high efficiency for heat and electricity generation at low temperatures. Therefore they are particularly suitable to support the heat source of heat pump systems, where low temperature heat is required. In this combination the PVT collector improves efficiency in two ways- of the heat pump by additional low temperature heat and of the photovoltaic module by lower cell temperatures. An increase of 4% of the annual and up to 9% for the daily photovoltaic electricity production and a high collector yield of 450 kWh/(m² a) was measured at a pilot system between April 2009 and April 2010. As the improvement of the PV and heat pump efficiency depends strongly on the thermal PVT collector performance, efficiency measurements of five different unglazed PVT collectors have been carried out. They showed significant differences, e.g. the conversion factor 0 without electricity production varies from 0.33 to 0.73. Further, a simulation model for unglazed PVT -collectors is presented. It is based on thermal performance parameters of EN 12975 and PV performance data at standard test conditions and it further includes thermal collector capacity and condensation effects.
Document Number: 2010.002
Kombination Solarthermi und Warmepumpe - Losungsan-satze, Chancen and Grezen
in German
October 2009 - PDF 0.72MB
By: Hans-Martin Henning & Marek Miara
Document Number: 2009.003
Soil Regeneration by Unglazed Solar Collectors in Heat Pump Systems
October 2009 - PDF 0.86MB
By: E. Bertam, J Glembin, J. Scheuren, G. Zienterra
Heat pump systems with borehole heat exchanger and unglazed solar thermal collector have been analysed in two pilot systems and assisting TRNSYS-Simulations. Measurements carreid out and simulations demonstrate that the borehole heat exchange is annually regenerated by the solar collector. This results in a a different behaviour compared to systems without a solar collector. As one effect of the changed system behaviour, the results of one investigated system, e.g. a simulation reference system, become transferable to other buildings by normalization to the total heat demand. Furthermore the influence of significant parameter on the annual performance factor and a correction function to characterize the heat sink side of the heat pump is presented.
Document Number: 2009.001
Solar + Heat Pumps
A New Task on Systems Using Solar Thermal Energy in Combination with Heat Pumps will Begin in 2010
October 2009 - PDF 0.07MB
By: Jean-Chistrophe Hadorn
Over the past few years, systems that combine solar thermal technology and heat pumps have been marketed to heat houses and produce domestic hot water. This new combination of technologies is a welcome advancement, but standards and norms are still required for its long term successful commercialization. At this time, most of the manufacturers are developping systems without a clear framework of what could be the best combinations of the two worlds and customers are lacking comparative approaches. The result is that systems reaching today the market are far from being optimized and sometimes simple enough to guarantee a life time problem free and efficient operation both technically and economically.
Performance Analysis of a Solar Heating System Coupled to a Heat Pump for Building Renovation Purposes
June 2009 - PDF 0.16MB
The aim of this study is to analyse the energy and economic performances of different types of facilities coupling a ground/water heat pump with an air-heater equipped with solar thermal collectors.
Document Number: 2009.002
Optimization of systems with the combination of ground-source heat pump and solar collectors in dwellings
April 2009 - PDF 0.45MB
By: Elisabeth Kjellsson, Goran Hellstromb, Bengt Perers
The use of ground-source heat pumps for heating and domestic hot water in dwellings is common in Sweden. The combination with solar collectors has been introduced to reduce the electricity demand in the system.
Niederst- und Niedertemperaturkollektoren für die Deutsche Solarthermie-Technologie Plattform
November 2008 - PDF 4.89MB
By: Müller H., Trinkl C., Zörner W.
Document Number: 2008.003
235 - Unglazed Solar Collectors in Heat Pump Systems: Measurement, Simulation and Dimensioning
October 2008 - PDF 0.22MB
By: E. Bertram, J. Glembin, J. Scheuren, G. Rockendorf, G. Zienterra
Two heat pump-systems with borehole and unglazed solar thermal collector are measured and simulated in TRNSYS as part of a research project. Compared to systems without collector the collector yield increases the average temperature level of the heat pump system on the evaporator side. A collector model is developed and evaluated considering the longwave radiation exchange and the condensation heat gains. The annual collector yield is measured as 545 kWh/m²a, of which 4% are determined as heat gains through condensation. Further simulations in TRNSYS show the interdependency of collector area, borehole length and heat pump system performance. The additional heat source component collector reduces the required borehole length and simultaneously improves the heat pump system performance in comparison to a solely borehole supported heat pump. In addition the system sensitivity for the heat source parameters is reduced significantly, thus resulting in a more certain system planning and operation.
Document Number: 2008.001
Sol-Pac. Analyse des performances du couplage d’une pompe à chaleur avec une installation solaire thermique pour la renovation
2008
By: Citherlet S., Bony J., Nguyen B.
Document Number: 2008.002
Systemoptimierung der Kombination von Solarkollektoren mit Wärmepumpenanlgen
2008
By: Witzig A., Marti J., Brüllmann T., Huber A.
Document Number: 2008.004